Lesson three


Gambling refers to involving in playing games with the aim of making money, but without being sure of the final outcome. Gambling is based on principle of either losing or making a profit. Examples of some of these games include playing cards and lotto among others.


  • Many people gamble because of This is where people feel that they have the freedom of doing anything they wish at anytime. In such a situation, some people may choose to take part in gambling.
  • Some people gamble because of peer influence. People under this category are forced to gamble because of the strong desire to behave like other members in the same group like same age and workmates among
  • Idleness or redundancy is a factor behind gambling common today. Such people get involved in gambling as a way of keeping themselves
  • The increasing level of unemployment is also causing gambling. This is the case with jobless people, who besides being unemployed must get any means of surviving. Such individuals may eventually engage in
  • The sweet and persuasive advertisements in various mass media are a major cause of gambling today. Mass media such as television, newspapers and radio stations pass on the information that makes gambling appear good and beneficial thus winning people’s
  • Excitement involved in gambling is a factor forcing people to do it. This is caused by the strong desire for the praises of being a winner in
  • Gambling is also caused by poverty. Some people take on gambling because of the attractive rewards that seems to be a solution to the economic hardships they are experiencing.
  • Weaknesses of the state may also lead to gambling. The government has currently failed to denounce some of these games. Instead, it has been giving support in various ways. This gives the people all the reasons to engage in.
  • Gambling is caused by This is the case with the people who are not willing to work at all and yet they desire to live a good life. Therefore, to such people, gambling becomes a solution to working.
  • Some people gamble because of the surrounding environment especially if it is a centre for gambling. These people are influenced by the availability of the equipment.
  • Gambling may be caused by greediness for money coupled with the desire to getting rich faster. To these people, gambling appears the fastest way of achieving their goals.


  • Gambling encourages laziness among people. Since it involves using less energy, people would prefer it to
  • Gambling can lead to an increase in the level of crimes in the community. This is because it encourages the formation of gangs, which are always associated with stealing, raping and defiling among
  • Gambling can also lead to poverty. This is because the little money that should have been saved is used up in gambling without getting the desired
  • Gambling tends to lead to misunderstanding among This may be as a result of constant losing without getting profit. It can also cause conflicts between parents and their children especially if they are doing it against the wish of another.
  • Gambling wastes a lot of time that should have been used in more productive activity. This retards the development in the
  • Gambling may lead to loss of creativity of the participants. Such people may not be able to think on their This is because they easily get used to depending on the unknown.
  • Gambling leaves one’s talent undiscovered and undeveloped as it does not normally involve the use of
  • Gambling may ruin education among students. This is because it does not give room for the students to revise
  • Gambling can result into an addict. Such an individual may not be able to do any other thing other than gambling that becomes a daily
  • Gambling is a misuse of the available labour force. This means that a more productive activity is ignored in preference for
  • Gambling can easily lead to moral decay. Gamblers may eventually ignore good virtues in life such as honesty, faithfulness and patience among others because of the desire to win As a result, they begin cheating, pick pocketing and lying.
  • Gambling is against God’s diving plan for According to Genesis 1:27-28, man is to be a co-creator through work not gambling.


  • In the African past, leisure followed the rhythm of work. It was conducted at any time depending on a given piece of work that was also done at any
  • Leisure was communal. It involved people in that given community at the same time.
  • Leisure was a time for the family and the clan to teach the young ones the values of life in that particular
  • Leisure activity were active in nature. All people had to participate directly in the activities being enjoyed like singing, wrestling and dancing without being as spectators.
  • Leisure was free of It did not involve any payment like money. It only aimed at giving the individuals access to the activities for the good of community.
  • Leisure involved carrying out important community cerebrations such as childbirth, child naming and circumcision rights among others. It became a way of preserving the tradition of the
  • Leisure was related to one’s skills and It aimed at developing the individual skills and talents for the service of all people. This was done through mock hunting, playing instruments and mock fighting among others.
  • Leisure was integrated into work. It was difficult to differentiate leisure from the actual piece of
  • Leisure involved thanks giving intended to appease and request God, spirits and the ancestors for particular blessings such as good harvest, rain and childbirth among others.
  • Leisure had to be socially accepted by the general public. Elders had the role of approving a given activity to be enjoyed at a given


  • Beer party was an important way of passing time in traditional Africa. People co- operated and contributed positively towards the party. This was an activity for the adults.
  • Traditional Africans had time for community celebrations such as introduction ceremonies and thanks giving
  • Rituals such as circumcision, funeral rites and child naming were also performed during leisure
  • Some people played musical instruments during leisure as a way of
  • Traditional Africans had time for singing. This was always carried out alongside activities such as digging, wedding and harvesting among
  • Dancing was one of the leisure activities in the traditional This differed from community to community. Some dances were for joy while others were for mourning.
  • Stories were also part of the leisure activities. The elders would tell the young one stories related to their origins and ancestors aimed at educating
  • Traditional Africans spent leisure by telling and interpreting proverbs. They made statements having hidden meaning but aimed at explaining something or giving some
  • Traditional Africans offered sacrifice during leisure. This was done not only in thanking God, the spirits and the ancestors for their provisions such as rain and good harvest but also in cleansing sin and making
  • There were also mock battles during leisure. This aimed at preparing individuals to be able to defend themselves in case of external
  • The traditional Africans had wrestling during leisure The winners were always given prizes.
  • Telling and interpreting riddles also formed part of leisure activities in traditional Africa. This was conducted around the campfire in the evening. In such a case, confusing and difficult questions or statements were made demanding quick response. This was aimed at testing and improving the reasoning capacity of each individual.
  • Art and craft was carried out during leisure in traditional Africa. This involved weaving baskets and mats, and making sculptures among
  • The traditional Africans spent their leisure doing community services such as cleaning as well.
  • Leisure was also a time for prayers. This was a way through which the Africans dedicated themselves to God and communicated their

3.6  Explain the importance of beer party in African traditional society

  • It created joy and happiness among the
  • It created friendship and the spirit of
  • It helped the Africans to relax their
  • It was the time for settling community and individual
  • It helped the people to share the fruits of their
  • It saved the people from redundancy and
  • It promoted unity and the spirit of brotherhood in the
  • It enabled the people to celebrate important events like
  • It encouraged the spirit of hard work among the traditional
  • It encouraged and promoted
  • It enabled the Africans to interact and


  • Leisure helped the traditional Africans to acquire and develop their talents through activities such as dancing, singing and wrestling among
  • Leisure gave the opportunity to share the fruits of their labour more especially at a beer
  • Leisure helped to strengthen and build the relationship among the traditional Africans. This was made possible through visitations and coming together as a family
  • Leisure gave the opportunity to the elders to discuss various issues in the community. This included planning for the development and solving any other problem that had
  • Leisure helped the traditional Africans to earn a living. This was through activities such as hunting, weaving baskets, mats and others. Such items were at times exchanged with other
  • Leisure gave the opportunity of educating the young ones. The elders imparted the accepted values of the community like respect of the elders, communal living and names of the clan through activities like proverbs, riddles and stories among
  • The traditional Africans had moments of joy and satisfaction through leisure. This was through participating in activities such as dancing, singing, storytelling, playing musical instruments and
  • Through leisure, people recalled important events in life like funeral rites. On such a day, they would remember the lives and the eventual death of their
  • Leisure gave the opportunity of sharing ideas. This particularly during beer This helped in the smooth running of the community.
  • The traditional Africans received blessings from God during leisure. This was through offering
  • Leisure promoted co-operations among the traditional Africans. As they come together in beer parties. They were able to socialize. Therefore, this promoted the spirit if togetherness.
  • Leisure helped to promote and preserve cultures. Carrying out cultural rituals such as circumcision, child naming, twin rituals and others helped people identify themselves with the way of life that had been in existence for
  • Leisure promoted courtship among the people. The men and women who were attracted to each other were able to come together and build their

3.8  Explain the difference between leisure today and African traditional society.

There are a number of differences in the ways in which leisure is carried out in present situation and the ways in which it was done in traditional Africa.

  • There is payment of money so that one can have access to leisure today but in traditional Africa leisure was free of
  • Leisure today has specific time allocated to it while in traditional Africa, it was done at any time following the completion of a given
  • There are new forms of leisure activities today which are foreign to the people but in traditional Africa, the activities were related to people’s
  • Leisure activities today are mostly passive while in traditional Africa, the activities were mostly
  • Leisure today cuts across the different age bracket while traditional Africa, it considered age differences.
  • Leisure today is looked at as a It requires training while in traditional Africa, people’s talents were looked at without necessarily being trained.
  • Leisure in traditional Africa was educative and today it is mostly for entertainment with some activities leading to moral
  • There is individualism in leisure today while in traditional Africa, leisure was a communal
  • Leisure today can be ignored but in traditional Africa it was strictly